Rome’s First Water Transport Solutions

Previous to 273, when the 1st elevated aqueduct, Aqua Anio Vetus, was made in Rome, residents who lived on hillsides had to go further down to gather their water from natural sources. Throughout this period, there were only 2 other systems capable of providing water to elevated areas, subterranean wells and cisterns, which accumulated rainwater. twf005__50887.jpg Beginning in the sixteenth century, a brand new approach was introduced, using Acqua Vergine’s subterranean sectors to generate water to Pincian Hill. The aqueduct’s channel was made attainable by pozzi, or manholes, that were installed along its length when it was initially built. Even though they were originally manufactured to make it possible to support the aqueduct, Cardinal Marcello Crescenzi started out using the manholes to accumulate water from the channel, starting when he bought the property in 1543. It appears that, the rainwater cistern on his property wasn’t good enough to meet his needs. To give himself with a more effective means to obtain water, he had one of the manholes opened up, giving him access to the aqueduct below his property.

From Where Did Large Garden Fountains Originate from?

A fountain, an incredible piece of engineering, not only supplies drinking water as it pours into a basin, it can also launch water high into the air for an extraordinary effect.

The main purpose of a fountain was originally strictly functional. Water fountains were linked to a spring or aqueduct to supply drinkable water as well as bathing water for cities, townships and villages. Up until the nineteenth, fountains had to be more elevated and closer to a water source, including aqueducts and reservoirs, in order to take advantage of gravity which fed the fountains. Fountains were not only utilized as a water source for drinking water, but also to adorn homes and celebrate the designer who created it. Roman fountains often depicted images of animals or heroes made of bronze or stone masks. To depict the gardens of paradise, Muslim and Moorish garden planners of the Middle Ages added fountains to their designs.

The fountains seen in the Gardens of Versailles were meant to show the power over nature held by King Louis XIV of France. To mark the entryway of the restored Roman aqueducts, the Popes of the 17th and 18th centuries commissioned the construction of baroque style fountains in the spot where the aqueducts arrived in the city of Rome

Indoor plumbing became the key source of water by the end of the 19th century thereby limiting urban fountains to mere decorative elements. Gravity was substituted by mechanical pumps in order to permit fountains to bring in clean water and allow for beautiful water displays.

Nowadays, fountains decorate public areas and are used to recognize individuals or events and fill recreational and entertainment needs.

Common Water Elements Found in Japanese Landscapes

No Japanese garden is finished without a water feature. The Japanese water fountain is considered symbolic of spiritual and physical cleansing, so it is typically placed in or near the doorways of temples or homes. The design of Japanese fountains tends to be very simple because they are meant to call attention to the water itself.

You will also see many fountains that have spouts crafted of bamboo.

The bamboo spout is placed over the basin, typically constructed of natural stones, and water trickles out. Even when new, it should be designed to look as if it has been out in the open for a long time. So that the fountain appears at one with nature, people customarily enhance it with natural stones, pretty flowers, and plants. As you can probably surmise, this fountain is symbolic rather than purely decorative.

An alternative is to buy a stone fountain, set it on a bed of rock, and place live bamboo and pretty stones around it. The idea is that over time it will start to look more and more like a natural part of the surroundings, as moss slowly grows over the stones.

Wherever there is plenty of open space, you have the possibility to build a more extensive water feature. Charming add-ons include a babbling brook or tiny pool with koi in it.

However, water does not have to be an element in a Japanese water fountain. Pretty rocks, sand, or gravel are ideal alternatives to actual water, as they can be used to represent the water. In addition, flat stones can be laid out close enough together to create the illusion of a babbling brook.

Ways Feng Shui Turn Your Backyard into Sanctuary

When applied to your yard, feng shui design will draw its beneficial energy into your home as well.

Do not be concerned if your yard is considered too small for feng shui design, as size is is not especially relevant. It is great to have a huge space to work with, but do not worry if the area is small since you can still incorporate feng shui design.

Whether you are introducing feng shui design to your home or garden, the tools are the same. The first part is to know the bagua, or energy map, of your home, as your garden’s bagua will be an extension of that.

There are five elements in feng shui theory, and you should know how to use each of them to maximize the energy.

The Earth element, for example, should be located in the northeast part of your garden which connects to the personal growth and self-cultivation energy in feng shui design. This could be the ideal place to put a meditative Zen garden with some beautiful stones because these represent the Earth element in feng shui.

Anyone thinking about including a water feature into their garden should place it in one of these feng shui areas: North (career & path in life), Southeast (money and abundance), or East (health & family).

Santa Maria in Cosmedin: A Roman Waterwork Worthy of Viewing

Archaeologists and restorers alike have stumbled upon a treasure trove of heathen and Christian artifacts on the site of Santa Maria in Cosmedin in Rome. The Bocca della Verità (Mouth of Truth} is a famed marble sculpture found at the entrance of the nearby basilica. The situation of the Santa Maria in Cosmedin fountain (1719) was not in a well-known neighborhood and was, therefore, not often visited. For the most part, visitors stayed away from the area because it was a drab and desolate part of the city. It was a this time that Pope Clement XI commissioned the Italian architect Carlo Bizzaccheri to put up a water feature to modernize the square outside the church of Santa Maria in Cosmedin. August 11, 1717 saw the start of the task to lay down the foundation of the church. Medallions bearing the images of the Blessed Virgin, for whom the church is named, and of St. John the Baptist, the patron saint of water”, were thrown in the foundation following the blessing of the first stone.

The Results of the Norman Invasion on Anglo Saxon Gardens

The advent of the Normans in the later half of the 11th century significantly modified The Anglo-Saxon ways of living. The Normans were better than the Anglo-Saxons at architecture and horticulture when they came into power. Still, home life, household architecture, and decoration were out of the question until the Normans taken over the general population. Most often designed upon windy peaks, castles were fundamental constructs that allowed their inhabitants to devote time and space to offensive and defensive programs, while monasteries were rambling stone buildings generally added in only the most fecund, broad valleys. The tranquil practice of gardening was unrealistic in these dismal bastions.

The finest example of the early Anglo-Norman style of architecture existent in modern times is Berkeley Castle. The keep is said to date from the time of William the Conqueror. A massive terrace serves as a hindrance to invaders who would attempt to mine the walls of the building. One of these terraces, a charming bowling green, is covered grass and flanked by an ancient yew hedge cut into the figure of crude battlements.


Aqueducts: The Solution to Rome's Water Troubles
Aqua Anio Vetus, the first raised aqueduct assembled in Rome, started out delivering the men and women living in the hills with water in 273 BC, even though they had... read more
From Where Did Large Outdoor Fountains Begin?
Modern fountains are used to adorn public spaces, honor individuals or events, and enhance recreational and entertainment events. read more
The Influence of the Norman Invasion on Anglo-Saxon Garden Design
The Anglo-Saxon way of life was considerably changed by the appearance of the Normans in the later eleventh century. Architecture and gardening were attributes that the Normans excelled in, trumping that of the Anglo-Saxons at the time of the... read more
The Influence of the Norman Invasion on Anglo Saxon Landscaping
The introduction of the Normans in the second half of the eleventh century irreparably altered The Anglo-Saxon lifestyle. The skill of the Normans surpassed the Anglo-Saxons' in design and farming at... read more
Keeping Your Garden Water fountain Clean
Finally, be sure to have a quick look at your fountain daily and add water if you notice that the level is too low. Permitting the water level to get too low can cause damage to the pump - and... read more