The Results of the Norman Conquest on Anglo-Saxon Garden Design

The introduction of the Normans in the 2nd half of the eleventh century irreparably improved The Anglo-Saxon lifestyle. The Normans were much better than the Anglo-Saxons at architecture and horticulture when they came into power. twf005__50887.jpg But before focusing on home-life or having the occasion to contemplate domestic architecture or decoration, the Normans had to subjugate an entire population. Castles were more standard designs and often constructed on blustery hills, where their tenants spent both time and space to exercising offense and defense, while monasteries were large stone buildings, mostly positioned in the widest, most fertile hollows. Tranquil pursuits such as gardening were out of place in these desolate citadels. The finest specimen of the early Anglo-Norman style of architecture existent in modern times is Berkeley Castle. The keep is said to date from William the Conqueror's time period. A monumental terrace serves as a deterrent to intruders who would try to mine the walls of the building. On one of these parapets is a scenic bowling green covered in grass and surrounded by an aged hedge of yew that has been shaped into coarse battlements.

Where did Large Outdoor Fountains Originate from?

A fountain, an incredible piece of engineering, not only supplies drinking water as it pours into a basin, it can also propel water high into the air for an extraordinary effect.

The primary purpose of a fountain was originally strictly functional. Cities, towns and villages made use of nearby aqueducts or springs to provide them with potable water as well as water where they could bathe or wash. Up until the 19th century, fountains had to be more elevated and closer to a water source, such as aqueducts and reservoirs, in order to benefit from gravity which fed the fountains. Fountains were an excellent source of water, and also served to decorate living areas and celebrate the designer. The main components used by the Romans to build their fountains were bronze or stone masks, mostly illustrating animals or heroes. To depict the gardens of paradise, Muslim and Moorish garden planners of the Middle Ages introduced fountains to their designs. To demonstrate his prominence over nature, French King Louis XIV included fountains in the Garden of Versailles. To mark the entryway of the restored Roman aqueducts, the Popes of the 17th and 18th centuries commissioned the construction of baroque style fountains in the spot where the aqueducts arrived in the city of Rome

Urban fountains built at the end of the 19th century served only as decorative and celebratory adornments since indoor plumbing provided the essential drinking water. Fountains using mechanical pumps instead of gravity helped fountains to deliver recycled water into living spaces as well as create unique water effects.

Modern-day fountains serve mostly as decoration for community spaces, to honor individuals or events, and enhance entertainment and recreational events.

Incorporate the Energy of Feng Shui into Your Backyard

Introducing feng shui design into your yard will help circulate its energy into your home and your life.

Size is not the most important factor when adding feng shui design to your yard. A huge space is great for those lucky enough to have it, but a smaller area can still be useful in feng shui design.

Whether you are introducing feng shui design to your home or garden, the tools are the same. As the energy map, or bagua, of your garden is an extension of your house’s bagua, you will need to begin by knowing the bagua of the house.

Before getting going, make sure you understand the five elements of feng shui so that you can optimize their energy.

An example of this is that Earth is the feng shui element you should have in the northeast part of your garden because that section of your garden connects to the energy of personal growth and self-cultivation. The ideal addition to the northeast corner of your yard might be a tranquil Zen garden decorated with natural stone, as they represent the Earth element in feng shui.

People thinking about incorporating a water element into their garden should place it in one of these feng shui areas: North (career & path in life), Southeast (money and abundance), or East (health & family).

Rome’s Early Water Delivery Systems

With the manufacturing of the 1st elevated aqueduct in Rome, the Aqua Anio Vetus in 273 BC, individuals who lived on the city’s hills no longer had to rely exclusively on naturally-occurring spring water for their needs. Outside of these aqueducts and springs, wells and rainwater-collecting cisterns were the lone techniques obtainable at the time to supply water to areas of greater elevation. Starting in the sixteenth century, a newer system was introduced, using Acqua Vergine’s subterranean sections to supply water to Pincian Hill. All through the length of the aqueduct’s route were pozzi, or manholes, that gave access.

While these manholes were provided to make it simpler and easier to protect the aqueduct, it was also possible to use buckets to extract water from the channel, which was employed by Cardinal Marcello Crescenzi from the time he obtained the property in 1543 to his death in 1552. He didn’t get a sufficient quantity of water from the cistern that he had built on his property to gather rainwater. That is when he made a decision to create an access point to the aqueduct that ran directly below his property.

The Truth About Water Features in Japanese Landscapes

Japanese gardens usually have a water feature. You will often notice Japanese water fountains in the doorway of a temple or home due to the fact that they are thought to be symbolic of physical and spiritual cleansing. Since water is meant to be the central point of a fountain, you will find that the designs are kept very simple.

Bamboo is a widely accepted material to use for spouts and therefore often incorporated into water fountains. The bamboo spout is placed over the basin, typically constructed of natural rocks, and water trickles out. It ought to have a worn-down, weathered feel as well. So that the fountain looks at one with nature, people customarily adorn it with natural stones, pretty flowers, and plants. Needless to say, this fountain is something more than just a regular decoration.

An alternate possibility is to buy a stone fountain, set it on a bed of rock, and place live bamboo and pretty stones around it. After some years it begins to really blend into the surrounding nature as moss covers the stone.

If you are blessed enough to have a big section of open land you can create a water feature that is much more elaborate. Popular water feature extras are a koi pond or any sort of tiny pool, or even a wandering brook.

However, water does not have to be an addition in a Japanese water fountain. Pretty rocks, sand, or gravel are good alternatives to actual water, as they can be used to represent the water. In addition, flat rocks can be laid out close enough together to give the illusion of a babbling brook.

Striking Garden Tiered Water Elements

Fountains with multiple tiers can be seen just about anywhere and have been featured in gardens for many years. These types of fountains are popular in Italy, Spain, and other Mediterranean nations. Public squares and building courtyards are very popular areas where you will see tiered fountains. Beautiful carvings can be found on some of the most sophisticated tiered fountains, while others have much simpler designs.

People love to showcase them in areas having a classic look and feel. The fountain should blend right into the setting as if it has been there since the start.


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