A Magnificent Example of Roman Know-How: The Santa Maria in Cosmedin Fountain

Archaeologists and restorers on the lookout for pagan and Christian artifacts in Rome have come upon an abundance of them in the area of the Santa Maria in Cosmedin. The nearby basilica is largely for the marble sculpture known as the Bocca della Verità, (Mouth of Truth) located in its entryway. When the Santa Maria in Cosmedin fountain was constructed in 1719, it was off the beaten track and generally unknown as a result. For the most part, people stayed away from the area because it was a sad and neglected part of the city. 6813-6804__83183.jpg As part of an effort to revitalize the piazza outside the church of Santa Maria in Cosmedin, the Italian architect Carlo Bizzaccheri was instructed by Pope Clement XI to take on the job. The task of laying down the church’s first stones began on August 17, 1717. The consecration of the first stone to be placed in the foundation was followed by medals being tossed in bearing the images of the Blessed Virgin, for whom the church is named, and St. John the Baptist, the patron saint of water.

The Influence of the Norman Invasion on Anglo Saxon Landscaping

The Anglo-Saxon way of life was significantly changed by the introduction of the Normans in the later eleventh century. Architecture and horticulture were attributes that the Normans excelled in, trumping that of the Anglo-Saxons at the time of the occupation. But before centering on home-life or having the occasion to consider domestic architecture or decoration, the Normans had to subjugate an entire society. Monasteries and castles served different functions, so while monasteries were enormous stone structures constructed in only the most productive, wide dales, castles were set upon blustery knolls where the residents focused on learning offensive and defensive strategies. The calm practice of gardening was not viable in these dismal bastions. Berkeley Castle is probably the most unchanged model in existence nowadays of the early Anglo-Norman style of architecture. It is said that the keep was introduced during William the Conqueror's time. An enormous terrace encompasses the building, serving as an obstacle to assailants wanting to dig under the castle walls. A picturesque bowling green, enveloped in grass and surrounded by battlements cut out of an ancient yew hedge, forms one of the terraces.

Modern Garden Decoration: Garden Fountains and their Beginnings

The dramatic or ornamental effect of a fountain is just one of the purposes it fulfills, in addition to delivering drinking water and adding a decorative touch to your property.

From the onset, outdoor fountains were soley meant to serve as functional elements. Cities, towns and villages made use of nearby aqueducts or springs to supply them with drinking water as well as water where they could bathe or wash. Up until the 19th century, fountains had to be higher and closer to a water source, such as aqueducts and reservoirs, in order to take advantage of gravity which fed the fountains. Artists thought of fountains as wonderful additions to a living space, however, the fountains also served to provide clean water and honor the designer responsible for building it. Animals or heroes made of bronze or stone masks were often used by Romans to decorate their fountains. To illustrate the gardens of paradise, Muslim and Moorish garden planners of the Middle Ages introduced fountains to their designs. To demonstrate his prominence over nature, French King Louis XIV included fountains in the Garden of Versailles. The Popes of the 17th and 18th centuries were glorified with baroque style fountains made to mark the place of entry of Roman aqueducts.

The end of the nineteenth century saw the rise in usage of indoor plumbing to provide drinking water, so urban fountains were relegated to strictly decorative elements. Impressive water effects and recycled water were made possible by replacing the power of gravity with mechanical pumps.

Nowadays, fountains decorate public areas and are used to honor individuals or events and fill recreational and entertainment needs.

Rome’s Ingenious Water Transport Solutions

With the development of the very first elevated aqueduct in Rome, the Aqua Anio Vetus in 273 BC, folks who lived on the city’s foothills no longer had to depend solely on naturally-occurring spring water for their demands. Outside of these aqueducts and springs, wells and rainwater-collecting cisterns were the lone technological innovations obtainable at the time to supply water to spots of high elevation. To provide water to Pincian Hill in the early 16th century, they implemented the emerging approach of redirecting the circulation from the Acqua Vergine aqueduct’s underground channel. As originally constructed, the aqueduct was provided along the length of its channel with pozzi (manholes) constructed at regular intervals. Although they were primarily designed to make it possible to service the aqueduct, Cardinal Marcello Crescenzi began using the manholes to get water from the channel, starting when he obtained the property in 1543. Whilst the cardinal also had a cistern to get rainwater, it didn’t produce enough water. To provide himself with a much more efficient system to obtain water, he had one of the manholes opened up, offering him access to the aqueduct below his residence.

Keeping Your Fountain Clean

Proper care and regular maintenance are important to the longevity of water fountains. It is essential to clean it out and get rid of any debris or foreign elements that might have dropped into or onto it. Additionally, anywhere light from the sun combines with still water, algae can develop. Mix hydrogen peroxide, sea salt, or vinegar into the water to avoid this particular dilemma.

There are those who prefer to use bleach, but that is hazardous to any animals that might drink or bathe in the water - so should therefore be avoided.

Every 3-4 months, garden fountains should go through a decent cleaning. The initial step is to empty out all of the water. When you have done this, scrub inside the water reservoir with a mild detergent. A good tip is to use a toothbrush if there are tiny hard-to-reach spots. Be sure to completely rinse the inside of the fountain to make sure all the soap is gone.

It is highly advised taking the pump apart to better clean the inside and eliminate any plankton or calcium. Letting it soak in vinegar for a couple of hours first will make it alot easier to clean. Build-up can be a big problem, so use mineral or rain water over tap water, when possible, to reduce this dilemma.

Lastly, make sure your fountain is always full by looking at it every day - this will keep it in tip-top shape. If the water level drops below the pump’s intake level, it can harm the pump and cause it to burn out - something you don't want to happen!

The Broad Array of Wall Water Fountains

Placing a wall fountain in your backyard or patio is ideal when you want to relax. You can also make use of a small area by having one custom-built. Both the stand alone and fitted models need to have a spout, a water basin, internal tubing, and a pump. Traditional, modern, classic, and Asian are just some of the styles from which you can consider.

Also referred to as a floor fountain, a stand-alone wall fountain is normally rather large, and its basin is installed on the ground.

A stand-alone fountain can either be integrated onto a wall already in existence or built into a wall under construction. This type of fountain contributes to a cohesive look making it appear as if it was part of the landscape instead of an added feature.


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