The Influence of the Norman Invasion on Anglo-Saxon Landscaping

Anglo-Saxons felt great changes to their daily lives in the latter half of the eleventh century due to the accession of the Normans. Architecture and gardening were skills that the Normans excelled in, trumping that of the Anglo-Saxons at the time of the occupation. ft-313__61411.jpg But before focusing on home-life or having the occasion to think about domestic architecture or decoration, the Normans had to subjugate an entire society. Monasteries and castles served different functions, so while monasteries were enormous stone structures built in only the most productive, wide dales, castles were set upon blustery knolls where the residents focused on learning offensive and defensive techniques. The bare fortresses did not provide for the peaceful avocation of horticulture. Berkeley Castle, perhaps the most pristine style of the early Anglo-Norman style of architecture, still exists today. The keep is rumored to have been conceived during the time of William the Conqueror. An enormous terrace encompasses the building, serving as an impediment to attackers intending to excavate under the castle walls. On one of these terraces sits a stylish bowling green: it's covered in grass and flanked by an old yew hedge that is created into the shape of rough ramparts.

The One Cleaning Solution to NEVER Use On Your Water Wall Fountains

It is vital to carefully maintain water fountains for them to work optimally. Leaves, twigs, and bugs often find their way into fountains, so it is important to keep yours free from such debris. On top of that, algae can be a problem, because sun hitting the water allows it to form easily. To prevent this, there are some common ingredients that can be poured into the water, such as vinegar, sea salt, or hydrogen peroxide. There are those who prefer to use bleach, but that is dangerous to any animals that might drink or bathe in the water - so should therefore be avoided.

Experts advise that the typical garden fountain undergoes a thorough cleaning every three-four months. First you must remove the water. Then use a soft towel and mild cleanser to scrub the inside. If there is intricate artwork, you might need to use a toothbrush for those hard-to-reach areas. Any soap residue left on your fountain can harm it, so be sure it is all rinsed off.

It is highly suggested taking the pump apart to better clean the inside and remove any plankton or calcium. To make it less challenging, soak it in vinegar overnight before cleaning.

Neither rain water nor mineral water contain ingredients that will build up inside the pump, so use either over tap water if possible.

Lastly, make sure your fountain is always full by looking at it every day - this will keep it in tip-top shape. Allowing the water to drop below the pump’s intake level, can cause serious damage and even make the pump burn out - an undesired outcome!

Acqua Vergine: The Remedy to Rome's Water Challenges

Rome’s very first elevated aqueduct, Aqua Anio Vetus, was built in 273 BC; prior to that, inhabitants residing at higher elevations had to depend on natural streams for their water. Over this time period, there were only 2 other systems capable of offering water to elevated areas, subterranean wells and cisterns, which accumulated rainwater. In the very early 16th century, the city began to use the water that ran below the ground through Acqua Vergine to provide water to Pincian Hill. As originally constructed, the aqueduct was provided along the length of its channel with pozzi (manholes) constructed at regular intervals. Whilst these manholes were created to make it easier to sustain the aqueduct, it was also possible to use buckets to pull water from the channel, which was done by Cardinal Marcello Crescenzi from the time he invested in the property in 1543 to his death in 1552. Even though the cardinal also had a cistern to collect rainwater, it couldn't produce enough water. That is when he made a decision to create an access point to the aqueduct that ran under his property.

The Extraordinary Santa Maria in Cosmedin Water Fountain in Rome

Archaeologists and restorers alike have stumbled upon a wealth of pagan and Christian relics on the site of Santa Maria in Cosmedin in Rome.

The famed marble sculpture known as the Bocca della Verità (Mouth of Truth) can be seen in the portico of the basilica nearby. Built in 1719, the Santa Maria in Cosmedin fountain was not well known and situated far from sight making it hard to visit. Since the nearby area was depressing and mostly uninhabited, visitors were not particularly interested in visiting it. It was then that the Italian architect Carlo Bizzaccheri was instructed by Pope Clement XI to erect a water fountain in the square outside the church of Santa Maria in Cosmedin in an attempt to make the area more popular. August 11. 1717 was when work on the church’s infrastructure commenced. The first stone to be placed in the foundation was blessed and medallions bearing the illustrations of the Blessed Virgin, for whom the church is named, and St. John the Baptist, the patron saint of water, were also thrown in.

Things You Will Need for an Outdoor Water Element

Two things many people forget about when planning the installation of a garden fountain is a suitable water source and an electrical outlet close by. The joy of owning one occasionally causes people to forget the technical aspects when setting it up for the first time. Most power cords are 12 feet long and require a 120v outdoor socket, though an extension cord can always be added. You will need to fill your fountain with water so make sure there is a source of water in the area. It is difficult to move water from one place to another. If you have thought about it before installation, having a hose nearby will make the job of filling the fountain much easier.

If you have an specialist on hand, you may want to consider getting a water fountain autofill with a connection to an external water line, as this would be much less difficult in the long run.

The Origins Of Garden Fountains

The incredible construction of a fountain allows it to provide clean water or shoot water high into air for dramatic effect and it can also serve as an excellent design feature to enhance your home.

The main purpose of a fountain was originally strictly practical. Cities, towns and villages made use of nearby aqueducts or springs to supply them with potable water as well as water where they could bathe or wash. Up to the late nineteenth century, water fountains had to be near an aqueduct or reservoir and higher than the fountain so that gravity could make the water move down or shoot high into the air. Acting as an element of decoration and celebration, fountains also supplied clean, fresh drinking water. Roman fountains usually depicted images of animals or heroes made of bronze or stone masks. To illustrate the gardens of paradise, Muslim and Moorish garden planners of the Middle Ages added fountains to their designs. King Louis XIV of France wanted to demonstrate his dominion over nature by including fountains in the Gardens of Versailles. The Romans of the 17th and 18th centuries manufactured baroque decorative fountains to glorify the Popes who commissioned them as well as to mark the location where the restored Roman aqueducts entered the city.

Since indoor plumbing became the standard of the day for clean, drinking water, by the end of the 19th century urban fountains were no longer needed for this purpose and they became purely decorative. Amazing water effects and recycled water were made possible by replacing the power of gravity with mechanical pumps.

Nowadays, fountains adorn public spaces and are used to pay tribute to individuals or events and fill recreational and entertainment needs.


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