The Outcome of the Norman Invasion on Anglo Saxon Gardens

The Anglo-Saxon way of life was considerably changed by the arrival of the Normans in the later eleventh century. The talent of the Normans exceeded the Anglo-Saxons' in architecture and agriculture at the time of the conquest. But the Normans had to pacify the entire territory before they could focus on home life, domestic architecture, and decoration. Because of this, castles were cruder buildings than monasteries: Monasteries were often immense stone buildings located in the biggest and most fertile valleys, while castles were built on windy crests where their inhabitants devoted time and space to tasks for offense and defense. Peaceful activities such as gardening were out of place in these desolate citadels. alp_gxt698_2__93993.jpg Berkeley Castle is possibly the most unchanged model in existence today of the early Anglo-Norman form of architecture. It is said that the keep was created during William the Conqueror's time. A massive terrace serves as a hindrance to intruders who would try to mine the walls of the building. On one of these parapets is a scenic bowling green covered in grass and enclosed by an aged hedge of yew that has been designed into coarse battlements.

A Magnificent Illustration of Roman Talent: The Santa Maria in Cosmedin Water Fountain

Both Christian and pagan artifacts have been found in by the load by archaeologists and restorers scouring the area of the Santa Maria in Cosmedin in Rome. Located in the portico of the nearby basilica one can find the famous marble sculpture known as the Bocca della Verità (Mouth of Truth). The location of the Santa Maria in Cosmedin fountain (1719) was not in a well-known neighborhood and was, therefore, not often visited. The part of town where it was situated was depressing and bleak which generally kept people away. As part of a project to refurbish the square outside the church of Santa Maria in Cosmedin, the Italian architect Carlo Bizzaccheri was instructed by Pope Clement XI to take on the job. August 11, 1717 saw the beginning of the job to put down the foundation of the church. The consecration of the first stone to be placed in the foundation was followed by medals being thrown in showing the images of the Blessed Virgin, for whom the church is named, and St. John the Baptist, the patron saint of water.

A Wall Fountain to Match Your Design

Putting a wall fountain in your backyard or patio is perfect when you want to unwind. Even a little space can contain a customized one. Whether it is stand alone or fitted, you will require a spout, a water basin, internal piping, and a pump. You have many styles to a lot to pick from whether you are looking for a traditional, popular, classical, or Asian style.

Usually quite large, freestanding wall fountains, also referred to as floor fountains, have their basins on the ground.

You can decide to put your wall-mounted fountain on an existing wall or build it into a new wall. A unified look can be realized with this style of fountain because it seems to become part of the scenery rather than an added element.

Modern Garden Decor: Fountains and their Roots

The dramatic or ornamental effect of a fountain is just one of the purposes it fulfills, as well as delivering drinking water and adding a decorative touch to your property.

Pure functionality was the original purpose of fountains. People in cities, towns and villages received their drinking water, as well as water to bathe and wash, via aqueducts or springs in the area. Used until the nineteenth century, in order for fountains to flow or shoot up into the air, their source of water such as reservoirs or aqueducts, had to be higher than the water fountain in order to benefit from the power of gravity. Acting as an element of decoration and celebration, fountains also provided clean, fresh drinking water. Bronze or stone masks of wildlife and heroes were commonly seen on Roman fountains. Muslims and Moorish landscaping designers of the Middle Ages included fountains to re-create smaller models of the gardens of paradise. To demonstrate his dominance over nature, French King Louis XIV included fountains in the Garden of Versailles. Seventeen and 18 century Popes sought to extol their positions by including beautiful baroque-style fountains at the point where restored Roman aqueducts arrived into the city.

Indoor plumbing became the main source of water by the end of the 19th century thereby limiting urban fountains to mere decorative elements. Amazing water effects and recycled water were made possible by switching the power of gravity with mechanical pumps.

Modern-day fountains function mostly as decoration for public spaces, to honor individuals or events, and compliment entertainment and recreational activities.

Exterior Wall Fountains: The Many Designs on the Market

Wall fountains are well suited to small patios or gardens because they do not take up too much space while also adding a touch of flair and providing a great place to find peace and quiet. When considering the many types of outdoor wall fountains available including traditional, antique, contemporary, or Asian, you are certain to find one best suited to your design ideas. While there are innumerable prefabricated ones on the market, you may need a customized fountain if none of these are appealing to you.

The two kinds of water features available to you are mounted and freestanding models. Small, self-contained versions can be placed on a wall are known as mounted wall fountains. Normally made of resin (to resemble stone) or fiber glass, these sorts of fountains are lightweight and easy to hang. In large stand-alone fountains, otherwise referred to as wall fountains, the basin is set on the ground with the smooth side positioned against a wall. Typically made of cast stone, these water features have no weight constraints.

Custom-made fountains which can be integrated into a new or existing wall are often recommended by landscaping designers. A skilled mason is necessary to place the water basin against the wall and properly install all the plumbing inside or behind the wall. The wall will have to have a spout or fountain mask built into it. The cohesive look provided by custom-made wall fountains make them appear to be part of the landscape instead of an afterthought.

Rome’s Early Water Transport Systems

Previous to 273, when the very first elevated aqueduct, Aqua Anio Vetus, was built in Roma, residents who resided on hills had to journey further down to get their water from natural sources. If people living at higher elevations did not have access to springs or the aqueduct, they’d have to count on the other existing solutions of the day, cisterns that gathered rainwater from the sky and subterranean wells that received the water from below ground. In the very early 16th century, the city began to make use of the water that flowed below the ground through Acqua Vergine to provide water to Pincian Hill. As originally constructed, the aqueduct was provided along the length of its channel with pozzi (manholes) constructed at regular intervals. Although they were originally manufactured to make it possible to support the aqueduct, Cardinal Marcello Crescenzi started out using the manholes to collect water from the channel, commencing when he bought the property in 1543. He didn’t get enough water from the cistern that he had built on his property to collect rainwater. Fortunately, the aqueduct sat directly below his property, and he had a shaft established to give him access.


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