Aqueducts: The Answer to Rome's Water Troubles

Prior to 273, when the first elevated aqueduct, Aqua Anio Vetus, was built in Rome, inhabitants who resided on hillsides had to travel even further down to get their water from natural sources. cs_145_aged_stone_1__87810.jpg During this period, there were only two other innovations capable of supplying water to high areas, subterranean wells and cisterns, which gathered rainwater. In the early 16th century, the city began to utilize the water that ran beneath the earth through Acqua Vergine to supply water to Pincian Hill. Pozzi, or manholes, were made at standard intervals along the aqueduct’s channel. Whilst these manholes were created to make it much easier to maintain the aqueduct, it was also possible to use containers to pull water from the channel, which was employed by Cardinal Marcello Crescenzi from the time he obtained the property in 1543 to his death in 1552. Even though the cardinal also had a cistern to collect rainwater, it couldn't supply sufficient water. To provide himself with a more efficient system to gather water, he had one of the manholes exposed, giving him access to the aqueduct below his residence.

Where did Large Outdoor Fountains Come From?

A fountain, an amazing piece of engineering, not only supplies drinking water as it pours into a basin, it can also propel water high into the air for an extraordinary effect.

Pure functionality was the original role of fountains. Water fountains were linked to a spring or aqueduct to provide drinkable water as well as bathing water for cities, townships and villages. Until the late 19th, century most water fountains operated using the force of gravity to allow water to flow or jet into the air, therefore, they needed a source of water such as a reservoir or aqueduct located higher than the fountain. Designers thought of fountains as amazing additions to a living space, however, the fountains also served to provide clean water and celebrate the artist responsible for creating it. Animals or heroes made of bronze or stone masks were often used by Romans to decorate their fountains. Throughout the Middle Ages, Muslim and Moorish garden planners included fountains to create smaller variations of the gardens of paradise. The fountains found in the Gardens of Versailles were meant to show the power over nature held by King Louis XIV of France. To mark the entryway of the restored Roman aqueducts, the Popes of the 17th and 18th centuries commissioned the building of baroque style fountains in the spot where the aqueducts arrived in the city of Rome

Urban fountains created at the end of the nineteenth functioned only as decorative and celebratory adornments since indoor plumbing provided the necessary drinking water. Impressive water effects and recycled water were made possible by switching the force of gravity with mechanical pumps.

Modern-day fountains serve mostly as decoration for open spaces, to honor individuals or events, and enhance entertainment and recreational gatherings.

Vitalize Your Backyard with the Aid of Feng Shui

Add feng shui design to the layout of your yard so it can bring energy into your household.

Size is not the primary concern when adding feng shui design to your garden. Of course, a huge area is great if you have it, but rest assured that feng shui works just as well in smaller areas as well.

The principal feng shui tools can be used for your home decor as well as your garden design. The initial step is to understand the bagua, or energy map, of your home, as your garden’s bagua will be an extension of that.

Before getting going, make sure you grasp the five elements of feng shui so that you can make the most of their energy.

The northeast corner of your garden, for instance, connects to personal growth and self-cultivation energy, and Earth is the feng shui element that is important to incorporate it. Since rocks epitomize the Earth element in feng shui, you might consider putting some into a serene Zen garden in the northeast corner of your yard.

Southeast (money and abundance), East (health & family), and North (career & path in life) are feng shui areas ideal for a water element.

The Results of the Norman Conquest on Anglo Saxon Gardens

The Anglo-Saxon way of life was drastically changed by the appearance of the Normans in the later eleventh century. Engineering and horticulture were skills that the Normans excelled in, trumping that of the Anglo-Saxons at the time of the occupation. But before concentrating on home-life or having the occasion to consider domestic architecture or decoration, the Normans had to subjugate an entire population. Because of this, castles were cruder structures than monasteries: Monasteries were usually important stone buildings located in the biggest and most fertile valleys, while castles were built on windy crests where their residents dedicated time and space to tasks for offense and defense. The tranquil practice of gardening was unrealistic in these bleak bastions. Berkeley Castle is probably the most unchanged model in existence today of the early Anglo-Norman form of architecture. The keep is reported to have been conceived during the time of William the Conqueror. An enormous terrace encompasses the building, serving as an obstruction to attackers wanting to dig under the castle walls. On 1 of these terraces lies a stylish bowling green: it is coated in grass and flanked by an old yew hedge that is created into the shape of rough ramparts.

Pick from all Types of Outdoor Water Features

Convert your garden into what you have always wanted – an oasis of peace. You can benefit from a water feature by incorporating an outdoor fountain to your garden and creating a place of serenity.

The beauty of a spouting fountain can be observed when it propels a stream of shooting water into the air. Large, existing ponds can have one of these built-in without much difficulty. These kinds of fountains are often seen in parks or historical manor homes.

Wall fountains are an excellent illustration of outdoor wall features. If you are eager to include a water feature, but are doubtful because you have a small yard, do not hesitate to incorporate one of these. Whereas spouting fountains leave behind an impressive effect, wall fountains are more understated water features. It is simple process wherein a small jet of water pours outwards in front of a beautifully textured wall and then flows down only to be pumped up again.

Your garden’s style dictates whether a themed fountain is suitable for you. A cherub grasping a spout is one of the possible types of classical-styled statues you can use if you want your fountain to fit a rustically themed cottage or garden. Something special and bold could be an alternative for more modern gardens. Feel free to let your hair down and go with something interesting and intrepid.

Tiered fountains are unique because the water moves down multiple levels. Water moves down multiple tiers in a cascading fountain.

Since outdoor fountains require a great deal of space, consider putting in a wall fountain or a pondless fountain. Put in one of these fountains if your space is limited since their reservoirs are hidden from sight underground.

If you seek a feeling of serenity and calmness, put in a Japanese fountain as these are considered to bring about such sensations. In this style of water feature the water runs through bamboo sticks. The cycle of water flowing into a rustic-styled recipient or a shaped stone repeats itself again and again.

One of the many styles of fountain available is the glass fountain. Creating a more classical look are trellis-style fountains which feature shaped metalwork. Water features such as these are ideal for yards with many sharp corners as well as modern-day forms and designs. The flowing water produces a beautiful effect as it moves down the glass panels. Some fountains also include colorful LED lights to shine onto the sheets of glass as water streams downwards. Often made of imitation rock, rock waterfall fountains have water slowly trickling down its surface.

A large rock drilled with openings which then has pipes inserted into it is what distinguishes a bubbling rock fountain.

Low pressure is used to spout out the water which then bubbles and gurgles at the top. Downward flowing water appears as gentle trickle as it moves down the sides of the rock to return to its base. Gardens with limited space are good areas to include this style of fountain. This sort of fountain, which uses low pressure to move water, is suitable because it stops water from being sprayed around in breezy weather.

Powered by sunlight, solar fountains are growing to be rapidly trendy. The lack of cables, the decreased difficulty in managing them, the lower energy bills, and the benefits to our ecosystem are just some of the motives for this increased interest. There is no need to settle on a specific model of outdoor solar-powered fountain because of the wide range of styles available on the market.

The Truth About Water Elements in Japanese Gardens

A water feature is an absolutely vital part of any Japanese garden. Since Japanese water fountains are viewed as symbolic of physical and spiritual cleansing, they are often positioned in the doorway of buildings or shrines. Since water is meant to be the focal point of a fountain, you will find that the designs are kept very simple.

You will also find many fountains that have spouts crafted of bamboo. Below the bamboo spout is typically a stone basin which receives the water as it flows down from the spout. People generally make them seem weathered and worn, even when they are new.

So that the fountain appears at one with nature, people normally adorn it with natural stones, pretty flowers, and plants. As you can likely deduce, this fountain is symbolic rather than just decorative.

If you want to get a bit more artistic, try a stone fountain enhanced with live bamboo and other natural elements placed on a bed of gravel. The aim is that over time it will start to look more and more like a natural part of the landscape, as moss slowly grows over the stones.

If you are blessed enough to have a big section of open land you can create a water feature that is much more elaborate. Popular water feature additions are a koi pond or any sort of little pool, or even a meandering brook.

Japanese fountains, on the other hand, do not actually need to have water in them. Many people decide to represent water with sand, gravel, or rocks rather than putting in real water. Natural rocks that are flat and laid out tightly together can be used to produce the illusion of running water.


Acqua Vergine: The Solution to Rome's Water Troubles
Rome’s very first elevated aqueduct, Aqua Anio Vetus, was built in 273 BC; before that, people living at higher elevations had to depend on natural streams for... read more
From Where Did Fountains Come From?
Nowadays, fountains decorate public spaces and are used to honor individuals or events and fill recreational and entertainment needs. read more
Modern Garden Decoration: Garden Fountains and their Beginnings
Modern-day fountains serve mostly as decoration for open spaces, to honor individuals or events, and compliment entertainment and recreational ... read more
Anglo Saxon Landscapes at the Time of the Norman Conquest
Anglo-Saxons felt incredible adjustments to their daily lives in the latter half of the eleventh century due to the accession of the Normans. At the time of the conquest, the Normans surpassed the Anglo-Saxons in building design and cultivation. But... read more