The Extraordinary Santa Maria in Cosmedin Waterwork in Rome

Archaeologists and restorers on the lookout for pagan and Christian antiquities in Rome have come across a treasure trove of them in the area of the Santa Maria in Cosmedin. The nearby basilica is mainly renowned for the marble sculpture known as the Bocca della Verità, (Mouth of Truth) located in its portico. The situation of the Santa Maria in Cosmedin fountain (1719) was not in a well-known area and was, therefore, not oftentimes visited. The part of town where it was located was forlorn and bleak which was enough to keep visitors away. or-120__95336.jpg It was then that the Italian architect Carlo Bizzaccheri was instructed by Pope Clement XI to erect a fountain in the square outside the church of Santa Maria in Cosmedin in an attempt to make the area more popular. August 11, 1717 saw the start of the job to lay down the foundation of the church. The consecration of the first rock to be placed in the foundation was followed by medals being tossed in bearing the images of the Blessed Virgin, for whom the church is named, and St. John the Baptist, the patron saint of water.

Rome’s Ingenious Water Delivery Solutions

Aqua Anio Vetus, the first raised aqueduct built in Rome, commenced supplying the many people living in the hills with water in 273 BC, though they had counted on natural springs up until then. During this period, there were only two other technologies capable of delivering water to elevated areas, subterranean wells and cisterns, which accumulated rainwater. Beginning in the sixteenth century, a newer method was introduced, using Acqua Vergine’s subterranean sectors to provide water to Pincian Hill. The aqueduct’s channel was made attainable by pozzi, or manholes, that were positioned along its length when it was initially created. While these manholes were manufactured to make it easier to manage the aqueduct, it was also possible to use buckets to extract water from the channel, which was employed by Cardinal Marcello Crescenzi from the time he obtained the property in 1543 to his death in 1552. Reportedly, the rainwater cistern on his property wasn’t good enough to fulfill his needs. To give himself with a more streamlined means to gather water, he had one of the manholes opened, providing him access to the aqueduct below his property.

Alluring Garden Multi-Level Water Fountains

Fountains with multiple levels can be seen just about anywhere and have been displayed in gardens for many years. The nations in the southern region of Europe tend to have a lot of these types of fountains. Public squares and building courtyards are very common places where you will see tiered fountains. Tiered fountains come in a wide array of designs, from elaborately carved styles to relatively plain types.

Any area can be enhanced with one, although a more traditional setting is sometimes more appropriate.

The fountain should look as old as the rest of the decor and fit in accordingly.

Keep Your Garden Wall Fountain Tidy

In order to ensure that water fountains last a while, it is vital to practice regular maintenance. Leaves, twigs, and bugs often find their way into fountains, so it is vital to keep yours free from such things. Also, algae is likely to build up wherever natural light meets water. Either sea salt, hydrogen peroxide, or vinegar can be dissolved into the water to eliminate this problem. Bleach can also be mixed into the water, but this is not the ideal option as it can hurt birds or other animals.

Experts advise that the typical garden fountain undergoes a thorough scouring every three-four months. The first step is to get rid of all of the water. When it is empty, clean inside the reservoir with a gentle cleanser. If there are any small grooves, use a toothbrush to reach every spot. Be sure to carefully rinse the inner surface of the fountain to make sure all the soap is gone.

Make sure you get rid of any calcium or plankton by taking the pump apart and washing the inside carefully. To make it less challenging, soak it in vinegar overnight before cleaning.

Neither rain water nor mineral water contain components that will build up inside the pump, so use either over tap water if possible.

One final tip for keeping your fountain in top working condition is to check the water level every day and make sure it is full. Permitting the water level to get too low can cause damage to the pump - and you certainly do not want that!

Enhance Your Yard with the Use of Feng Shui

Feel the health benefits of feng shui by adding its design elements into your yard.

As far as the size of your yard goes, it is not extremely important when incorporating feng shui design to it. If you have a lush, charming one, that is great, but even a small area works well with feng shui design.

The same tools you employ to include feng shui design into your home can be used in the garden. The first step is to know the bagua, or energy map, of your home, as your garden’s bagua will be an extension of that.

In order to make the most of feng shui, it is vital to start by knowing how to bolster each of its five elements.

The northeast corner of your garden, for instance, connects to personal growth and self-cultivation energy, and Earth is the feng shui element that is necessary to use it. The ideal addition to the northeast corner of your yard might be a serene Zen garden decorated with natural stone, as they represent the Earth element in feng shui.

People thinking about including a water element into their garden should place it in one of these feng shui areas: North (career & path in life), Southeast (money and abundance), or East (health & family).

From Where Did Landscape Fountains Begin?

The amazing or ornamental effect of a fountain is just one of the purposes it fulfills, as well as supplying drinking water and adding a decorative touch to your property.

Pure practicality was the original purpose of fountains. Inhabitants of urban areas, townships and small towns used them as a source of drinking water and a place to wash, which meant that fountains needed to be connected to nearby aqueduct or spring. Used until the nineteenth century, in order for fountains to flow or shoot up into the air, their origin of water such as reservoirs or aqueducts, had to be higher than the water fountain in order to benefit from gravity. Fountains were an optimal source of water, and also served to decorate living areas and memorialize the artist. Roman fountains usually depicted imagery of animals or heroes made of metal or stone masks. To illustrate the gardens of paradise, Muslim and Moorish garden planners of the Middle Ages introduced fountains to their designs. Fountains played a considerable role in the Gardens of Versailles, all part of French King Louis XIV’s desire to exert his power over nature. To mark the entryway of the restored Roman aqueducts, the Popes of the 17th and 18th centuries commissioned the building of baroque style fountains in the spot where the aqueducts entered the city of Rome

Indoor plumbing became the key source of water by the end of the 19th century thereby restricting urban fountains to mere decorative elements. Fountains using mechanical pumps instead of gravity allowed fountains to bring recycled water into living spaces as well as create special water effects.

Decorating city parks, honoring people or events and entertaining, are some of the functions of modern-day fountains.


Water Transport Solutions in Early Rome
Aqua Anio Vetus, the first raised aqueduct founded in Rome, started out delivering the men and women living in the hills with water in 273 BC, though they had relied on natural springs up till then. ... read more
Water Delivery Strategies in Historic Rome
Previous to 273, when the 1st elevated aqueduct, Aqua Anio Vetus, was constructed in Roma, residents who dwelled on hillsides had to journey further down to collect their water from natural sources. When aqueducts or springs... read more
Contemporary Garden Decoration: Fountains and their Beginnings
Contemporary fountains are used to embellish public spaces, honor individuals or events, and enrich recreational and entertainment events. read more
Keep Your Water Wall Fountain Clean
Lastly, make sure your fountain is always full by checking on it every day - this will keep it in tip-top shape. Permitting the water level to get too low can result in damage to the pump - and you certainly do not want... read more
Keeping Your Large Outdoor Fountain Tidy
And finally, make sure the water level is always full in order to keep your fountain operating optimally. Allowing the water to reach below the pump’s intake level, can cause serious damage and even make the... read more
A Peek into the Origins of Outdoor Fountains
Countless of ancient Greek documents were translated into Latin under the auspices of the scholarly Pope Nicholas V who led the Roman Catholic Church from 1397 to 1455. He also initiated the embellishment of the city to turn it into the worthy ... read more